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                                                           Eucalyptus hybrid clone p21

plant has come to stay in India. Large scale plantations have been raised in in India by government owned and private farm lands; the planting is continuing. There is vast potential to grow the species economically on farm and waste land in suitable zones. Eucalyptus plants meets requirements of people and industries and has helped to reduce pressure on natural forests. The uses of eucalyptus are varied; people are realising this fast. Growth is varied; clonal selection, propagation and planting will improve uniform production. Government intervention in marketing is necessary to safeguard the interest of farmers.

Key words: Eucalyptus clone plant, India plantation, plant supplier, wood exporter , growth plant, india,plywood,manufacturer,neelgiri plant nursery ,poplar safeda,teak,mahogany,pomegranate,guava,lemon,mango,fruit plant,tissue culture,farming,cultivation,information,technical  guideline, REVOLVING EARTH AGRO (INDIA) PVT. 












 REVOLVING EARTH AGRO (INDIA) PVT. LTD.

Our vision is to promote development of forestry as trees are important, valuable and necessary to our very existence. It's not too hard to believe that, without trees we humans would not exist on this beautiful planet. In fact, some claim can be made that our mother's and father's ancestors climbed trees

 Another debate for another site.

Still, trees are essential to life as we know it and are the ground troops of an environment . Let's face it, we could not exist as we do, if there were no trees. A mature leafy tree produces as much oxygen in a season as 10 people inhale in a year. What many people don't realize is that the forest also acts as a giant filter that cleans the air we breath.


     PRESENT SITUATION OF EUCALYPTUS CLONE PLANTATION IN INDIA

Over 1,000,000 ha of eucalypt plantations have been established, mostly by State Forest Departments and Forest Development Corporations. Apart from these, around 6,000 million seedlings have been planted in private lands (REVOLVING EARTH AGRO (INDIA) PVT. LTD.). There are several reasons for raising large scale eucalypt plantations in the country; some are common and some are specific to each State. The most important common reason is to reclothe the denuded and barren hilly areas and replacing low value natural forests (FAO, 1979).

The policy of converting low value natural forests into plantations was aimed at improving productivity and to generate government revenue.

Eucalypt plantations were also raised under REVOLVING EARTH AGRO (INDIA) PVT. LTD. and centrally sponsored schemes to meet the demands of local people in respect of the requirement of firewood, small timber, poles etc.. In most States, the Forest Departments had schemes providing free supply of seedlings of various species, including eucalyptus. The success of eucalyptus, both for regenerating degraded forest and waste lands, made it one of the main species under Social Forestry Projects. Starting from Gujarat, almost all the States developed the Social Forestry Projects, and obtained external funding.


ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF EUCALYPTUS PLANTATIONS ACCORDING TO REVOLVING EARTH AGRO (INDIA) PVT. LTD.

Growing stock assessment

The economics of eucalyptus plantations varies depending upon the use to which it is put. In a country like India where firewood is the main source of energy, whether it is eucalyptus or any other species, there is no better economic return - as the wood is burnt. This situation may not change in the near future. The eucalyptus wood which is marketed is used either as firewood or as pulpwood by the paper and rayon industries.


UTILISATION OF EUCALYPTUS PLANT AND WOOD

Fuel: Eucalypt was not considered a good firewood and timber species. This is being disproved. Due to the shortage of miscellaneous species, people have found that eucalypt is a very good substitute for firewood because of its calorific value and moderate burning qualities

Charcoal: Eucalypt gives good charcoal. Wherever farm forestry has flourished, eucalypt wood is used for charcoal manufacture to meet the semi urban and urban demand.

Poles: Eucalypt poles are good for transmission purposes and are also used in construction of dwelling houses, work sheds and in mines. Eucalypt poles have good demand near cities for use as scaffolding material. Eucalypt sold in the form of poles have price preference over firewood.

Timber: Earlier, eucalypt wood was not considered a good timber. The quality of the timber depends upon the species and edapho -climatic factors. Considering the cost of eucalypt timber, it is found to be quite economical to use in low cost houses; as mine timber and in other construction purposes. It is also being used as furniture wood.

Rural small scale industries: Rural small scale industries are developing fast in the country-side, important ones among them being brick making, jaggery making, pottery, tile manufacturing, lime production, dyeing, smithy, etc. All these industries require firewood or charcoal, provided by eucalypt plantations. They earlier depended on firewood from natural forests, which is no longer available.

Honey and oil: Several eucalyptus species are rich in nectar and pollen. Bee keeping is profitable and this activity is improving. Leaves of Eucalyptus are used for extraction of oil. It is a cottage industry providing employment in some parts of India.

Paper and pulp: One of the most important uses of eucalyptus wood chipps so far has been in the paper and pulp industry. The demand for paper and pulp is going to increase many fold in India and eucalypt, being one of the good pulpwood materials, will be in continuing demand.

                                                                     
   MAHOGANY PLANTATION




​Mahogany trees do best when planted in areas that receive partial to full sun.

Avoid heavily shaded areas.




Also note that these trees are considered tropical varieties and thrive best in warm climates. Harsh winters can easily damage or destroy mahogany trees. Think twice about planting a mahogany tree if your winters reach below temperatures of 40 degrees Fahrenheit (4.4 degrees Celsius).

 Mahogany trees can grow in a range of soil types, but they do thrive best in well-drained sandy loam soils.

Avoid heavy clay soils and duplex soils.

Mix organic material into the hole. Add composted cow manure and topsoil to the hole, mixing it into the soil at the bottom and sides of the hole with a shovel or garden fork.

·         Note that organic peat moss can be used instead of topsoil, if desired.

·         If desired, you can skip the soil amendments altogether. Doing so can make it more difficult for the tree to establish itself, but if you wish to add fertilizer to the area after planting the tree, there shouldn't be a problem.

Additionally, mahogany trees do best in neutral soils. They can survive in strongly acidic soils, too, but avoid planting them in alkaline soils. If you need to use naturally alkaline soil, amend it with sphagnum peat, ammonium nitrate fertilizer, sulfur-coated urea, or agricultural sulfur.

Most mahogany trees are resistant to salt spray, so soils frequently drenched by salt water mist should not present a problem.

Water regularly. Use a garden hose to water the soil around the tree once a week, applying just enough water to create visible moisture on the surface of the soil.

·         During rainy seasons, additional waterings may not be needed. On the other hand, during abnormal droughts, you may need to increase your watering schedule from once to twice a week. Regardless of how the weather is, the idea is simply to keep the soil regularly moist.

·         Consistent sources of water are especially important while mahogany trees are young and have not yet established themselves. Fully mature trees can tolerate some drought without dying, but dry spells may cause the tree to drop its leaves early for the season.

Since mahogany trees have deep root systems, you should make sure that the soil you plant it in runs deep, too.

Fertilize three times each year. Feed the tree with a dose of fertilizer in the spring, summer, and fall. Use a balanced granular fertilizer for best results.

·         The same type of fertilizer used at the time of planting can be used for yearly maintenance. The fertilizer should contain equal parts nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.

·         Follow the dosage instructions provided on the label of the fertilizer used. For best results, mix the fertilizer into the soil around the tree instead of spreading it over the surface of the soil.

To give the tree another boost and help the sapling establish itself, consider applying a balanced fertilizer containing equal parts nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.

These fertilizers will usually be labeled as 10-10-10, 30-30-30, or something similar.

Apply 0.22 to 0.44 lb (100 to 200 g) of fertilizer per tree.

You should apply the fertilizer in small pockets of soil around the perimeter of the tree. Do not spread it into the planting hole or along the surface of the ground. Surface fertilization can result in weed growth.

Prune young mahogany trees. During the first two to eight years of the tree's life, yearly pruning can help control the height and spread of the tree.

·         Check the arrangement and space between limbs. The healthiest mahogany trees will have several evenly spaced major limbs that spread out along one central trunk or central leader. As the tree grows, these limbs will be at least 2 feet (61 cm) apart from one another, if not further.

·         Prune away any upright leaders aside from the central trunk. These upward growing branches can make it more difficult for the tree to tolerate strong winds 

​·         Cut away any branches that grow larger than two-thirds of the diameter of the central trunk. Such limbs can put stress on the tree and shorten its lifespan.

Watch out for pests. There are a few common pests that may present a problem to the health and longevity of your tree. When you spot such pests, apply an appropriate pesticide to the area.

·         Some of the biggest problems come from shoot borers, longicorn beetles, powder post beetles, tent caterpillars, tip moths, scale, leaf notchers, leaf miners, Cuban leaf beetles, mahogany webworms, and Sri Lanka weevils.

·         Among these insect pests, borers present the greatest threat to the health and longevity of the tree. When borers are present, pesticides should be applied.

·         

·         The best way to save a mahogany tree facing nectria infection is to remove the infected wood. You may also apply a fungicide to the tree, but fungicides do not always work on this particular type of infection.


                                                                                                       POPLAR PLANTATION

Poplar is one of the fast growing industrial woods which can be grown as a mono crop as well as in association with agricultural crops. Its wood being light, homogenous and odourless is suitable for match splints, plywood, ply board, packing cases, sports goods, artificial limbs, furniture, pulp paper, wood wool, light constructional timber, pencils, furniture etc


​The best time of planting is mid February. Planting distance followed is 80 cm row to row and 60 cm plant to plant. Before planting, hole should be made with the planting rod whose lower end is flattened and sharpened like a screw driver. The cutting should be planted in the hole with thinner end up in such a way that the upper portion is just 2 mm above the ground level. After planting, the soil around the plant to be compacted gently but firmly. Each poplar plant needs approximately 20-25 m2 space for its optimum growth. One year old Entire Trans Plants (ETPs) without any co-leader or branches and with naked root (without any ball of earth) are planted in the field from mid-January to February end in pits of size 50cm X 50cm X 100cm. The spacing to be adopted for block plantation is generally 5m X 4m apart (500 plants per hectare ) and for single line or field boundary plantation  plant to plant distance is kept at 3m. The plants may be soaked for about 48 hours in running fresh water before planting. To avoid fungal infection, lower one meter of the poplar transplant should be dipped in 0.15 percent solution of Emissan-6 for about 20 minutes and for termite protection for 10 minutes in 0.25 percent Aldrix solution or alternatively for protection against termites about 400g of deoiled neem cake can be mixed with soil to be refilled in pits. Planting should preferably be done by two men so that one man holds the plant in erect position and the other fills the pit and compacts the earth around it. After planting, the pits should be filled with top soil and FYM in a ratio of 1 : 1 mixed with 10-20g BHC and 50g P2O5. Proper compacting of the soil and immediate irrigation after plantation enhances the chances of survival of the plants. First year casualities should be beaten up with sturdy ETPs not less than 5 m tall in January-February of the following year. After that no beating up should be done as the new plants are not able to catch up with rest of the plants.


                                                                                                  IRRIGATION


Regular and timely irrigation is a must for proper growth of poplars. While frequency of irrigation depends upon various factors like amount of rainfall, type of soil, age of trees and climatic conditions some general guidelines can be followed. During the first year of plantation irrigation must be done at weekly intervals except when there are reasonably good rains. This should be done from the time of transplanting till the monsoons begin. From July to September, irrigation must be provided as needed, depending upon the rainfall and intervening dry spells. From October to February when growth activity slows down, two irrigation's per month will be sufficient. During the second year, irrigation may be given at 15 days interval in January-February and at 7-10 days interval from March to onset of monsoons after which the plantation may be irrigated on the lines of first year. From third to eight year a minimum of two irrigation per month during summer and one during winter season are a must. For working of the unit cost, an average of 24 irrigations per annum had been taken.

​                                                                                        Fertilizer Application

Well decomposed FYM should be applied while preparing the field for inter-cultivation of Rabi and Kharif crops. The general principles to be followed at the time of application of fertilizer are as under :

A basal dose of 2 Kg good FYM, 50 gm super phosphate and 5 gm urea per plant should be mixed.
Nitrogenous fertilizers be applied in split doses. First dose of nitrogen (75 gm urea) should be applied during the first week of June, second dose (150 gm urea) during first week of July and third dose (250 gm urea) during second and third week of August.
Fertilizer should not be placed near the stem of the plants as these can result in girdling of young trees and can even kill them.
Application of fertilizer must be followed by light irrigation.

Deficiency of micro-nutrients such as Zinc, Iron, Magnesium, Calcium, Copper, Boron and Molybdenum among others as per soil fertility status is of common occurrence. These are also called trace elements as these are needed in very small quantities. Symptoms of micro-nutrient deficiency include intraveinal yellowing of leaves, small and shriveled leaves and poor tree growth.

Inter-cropping

It is desirable to grow field crops as inter crops in block plantations of poplar. All rabi and kharif crops can be grown during the first three years except paddy. However, inter-cultivation of sugarcane be preferred for first two years as it is more profitable.  Cultivation of wheat, cabbage, chilly, tomato, barley, coriander, turmeric, ginger, strawberry, oats, berseem, sarson etc. can be taken up from third year and throughout the rotation. In the present model, income from inter cropping has not been considered for working out the financial viability.

         

                                                                                     Harvesting and Utilization

Though ideally, the plants are ready for harvest in eighth year when they attain a girth of about 90-100 cm, the present trend is to harvest after six years. Marketing is done as standing trees or after felling and cutting into logs. A large quantity of poplar wood is used for making match splints, plywood and block boards. The wood is also good for making paper pulp and being light in weight is ideally suited for making packing cases. 

                                                                                            Yield and Returns

In market, the poplar wood is sold on weight basis. The average wood biomass per tree after six years is about 300kg to 400kg  and presently the prices vary from Rs. 4 to Rs. 5 per kg though the highest has gone upto Rs. 6/kg. Assuming an average price @ Rs.4/- per kg (under bark volume), the farmer can get Rs. 1600-2000/tree/- over a period of six years. Income from inter-crops will be additional which will vary depending upon the crop cultivated. The returns will depend upon site quality, inputs, intensity of management, actual yield and ruling market prices at the time of harvest.