Eucalyptus hybrid clone p21 plant has come to stay in India. Large scale plantations have been raised in in India by government owned and private farm lands; the planting is continuing. There is vast potential to grow the species economically on farm and waste land in suitable zones. Eucalyptus plants meets requirements of people and industries and has helped to reduce pressure on natural forests. The uses of eucalypt are varied; people are realising this fast. Growth is varied; clonal selection, propagation and planting will improve uniform production. Government intervention in marketing is necessary to safeguard the interest of farmers.
Key words: Eucalyptus clone plant, India plantation, plant supplier, wood exporter , growth plant, india,plywood,manufacturer,neelgiri plant nursery ,safeda,teak,mahogany,pomegranate,guava,lemon,mango,fruit plant,tissueculture,farming,cultivation,information,technical guideline, REVOLVING EARTH AGRO (INDIA) PVT. LTD.
REVOLVING EARTH AGRO (INDIA) PVT. LTD.
Our vision is to promote development of forestry as trees are important, valuable and necessary to our very existence. It's not too hard to believe that, without trees we humans would not exist on this beautiful planet. In fact, some claim can be made that our mother's and father's ancestors climbed trees
Another debate for another site.
Still, trees are essential to life as we know it and are the ground troops of an environment . Let's face it, we could not exist as we do, if there were no trees. A mature leafy tree produces as much oxygen in a season as 10 people inhale in a year. What many people don't realize is that the forest also acts as a giant filter that cleans the air we breath.
PRESENT SITUATION OF EUCALYPTUS CLONE PLANTATION IN INDIA
Over 1,000,000 ha of eucalypt plantations have been established, mostly by State Forest Departments and Forest Development Corporations. Apart from these, around 6,000 million seedlings have been planted in private lands (REVOLVING EARTH AGRO (INDIA) PVT. LTD.). There are several reasons for raising large scale eucalypt plantations in the country; some are common and some are specific to each State. The most important common reason is to reclothe the denuded and barren hilly areas and replacing low value natural forests (FAO, 1979).
The policy of converting low value natural forests into plantations was aimed at improving productivity and to generate government revenue.
Eucalypt plantations were also raised under REVOLVING EARTH AGRO (INDIA) PVT. LTD. and centrally sponsored schemes to meet the demands of local people in respect of the requirement of firewood, small timber, poles etc.. In most States, the Forest Departments had schemes providing free supply of seedlings of various species, including eucalyptus. The success of eucalyptus, both for regenerating degraded forest and waste lands, made it one of the main species under Social Forestry Projects. Starting from Gujarat, almost all the States developed the Social Forestry Projects, and obtained external funding.
Some States have encouraged pulp and paper industries to raise their own captive plantations by leasing degraded forests and Government waste lands. REVOLVING EARTH AGRO (INDIA) PVT. LTD. initially supported such ventures. With the new Forest Policy the industries should obtain their raw material from farm forest areas. The new Forest Policy has given a boost to farm forestry, and to eucalypts. The wood industries are encouraging farmers to raise trees in their lands by giving incentives. Some rich farmers have diverted good arable land with assured irrigation facilities, for growing eucalypt. Here, economics was the main consideration.
ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF EUCALYPTUS PLANTATIONS ACCORDING TO REVOLVING EARTH AGRO (INDIA) PVT. LTD.
Growing stock assessment
The economics of eucalyptus plantations varies depending upon the use to which it is put. In a country like India where firewood is the main source of energy, whether it is eucalypt or any other species, there is no better economic return - as the wood is burnt. This situation may not change in the near future. The eucalyptus wood which is marketed is used either as firewood or as pulpwood by the paper and rayon industries.
The maximum value for eucalyptus wood is as pulpwood. The Farm Forestry sector annually extracts and sells 150,000 tonnes of pulpwood, to the industries. Eucalyptus timber is also used as poles for scaffolding, transmission lines and in construction.
ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF EUCALYPTUS
Large scale planting of eucalypt has caused concern to many people as they thought it would have adverse environmental impacts particularly in relation to nutrient depletion and high water use. A number of studies have been undertaken in various sites on the water use of eucalypt but none of the findings are conclusive. The summary of the findings are:
UTILISATION OF EUCALYPTUS PLANT AND WOOD
Fuel: Eucalypt was not considered a good firewood and timber species. This is being disproved. Due to the shortage of miscellaneous species, people have found that eucalypt is a very good substitute for firewood because of its calorific value and moderate burning qualities
Charcoal: Eucalypt gives good charcoal. Wherever farm forestry has flourished, eucalypt wood is used for charcoal manufacture to meet the semi urban and urban demand.
Poles: Eucalypt poles are good for transmission purposes and are also used in construction of dwelling houses, work sheds and in mines. Eucalypt poles have good demand near cities for use as scaffolding material. Eucalypt sold in the form of poles have price preference over firewood.
Timber: Earlier, eucalypt wood was not considered a good timber. The quality of the timber depends upon the species and edapho -climatic factors. Considering the cost of eucalypt timber, it is found to be quite economical to use in low cost houses; as mine timber and in other construction purposes. It is also being used as furniture wood.
Rural small scale industries: Rural small scale industries are developing fast in the country-side, important ones among them being brick making, jaggery making, pottery, tile manufacturing, lime production, dyeing, smithy, etc. All these industries require firewood or charcoal, provided by eucalypt plantations. They earlier depended on firewood from natural forests, which is no longer available.
Honey and oil: Several eucalypt species are rich in nectar and pollen. Bee keeping is profitable and this activity is improving. Leaves of Eucalyptus are used for extraction of oil. It is a cottage industry providing employment in some parts of India.
Paper and pulp: One of the most important uses of eucalypt wood so far has been in the paper and pulp industry. The demand for paper and pulp is going to increase many fold in India and eucalypt, being one of the good pulpwood materials, will be in continuing demand.
Mahogany trees do best when planted in areas that receive partial to full sun.
Avoid heavily shaded areas.
Also note that these trees are considered tropical varieties and thrive best in warm climates. Harsh winters can easily damage or destroy mahogany trees. Think twice about planting a mahogany tree if your winters reach below temperatures of 40 degrees Fahrenheit (4.4 degrees Celsius).
Mahogany trees can grow in a range of soil types, but they do thrive best in well-drained sandy loam soils.
Avoid heavy clay soils and duplex soils.
Mix organic material into the hole. Add composted cow manure and topsoil to the hole, mixing it into the soil at the bottom and sides of the hole with a shovel or garden fork.
· Note that organic peat moss can be used instead of topsoil, if desired.
· If desired, you can skip the soil amendments altogether. Doing so can make it more difficult for the tree to establish itself, but if you wish to add fertilizer to the area after planting the tree, there shouldn't be a problem.
Additionally, mahogany trees do best in neutral soils. They can survive in strongly acidic soils, too, but avoid planting them in alkaline soils. If you need to use naturally alkaline soil, amend it with sphagnum peat, ammonium nitrate fertilizer, sulfur-coated urea, or agricultural sulfur.
Most mahogany trees are resistant to salt spray, so soils frequently drenched by salt water mist should not present a problem.
Water regularly. Use a garden hose to water the soil around the tree once a week, applying just enough water to create visible moisture on the surface of the soil.
· During rainy seasons, additional waterings may not be needed. On the other hand, during abnormal droughts, you may need to increase your watering schedule from once to twice a week. Regardless of how the weather is, the idea is simply to keep the soil regularly moist.
· Consistent sources of water are especially important while mahogany trees are young and have not yet established themselves. Fully mature trees can tolerate some drought without dying, but dry spells may cause the tree to drop its leaves early for the season.
Since mahogany trees have deep root systems, you should make sure that the soil you plant it in runs deep, too.
Fertilize three times each year. Feed the tree with a dose of fertilizer in the spring, summer, and fall. Use a balanced granular fertilizer for best results.
· The same type of fertilizer used at the time of planting can be used for yearly maintenance. The fertilizer should contain equal parts nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.
· Follow the dosage instructions provided on the label of the fertilizer used. For best results, mix the fertilizer into the soil around the tree instead of spreading it over the surface of the soil.
To give the tree another boost and help the sapling establish itself, consider applying a balanced fertilizer containing equal parts nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.
These fertilizers will usually be labeled as 10-10-10, 30-30-30, or something similar.
Apply 0.22 to 0.44 lb (100 to 200 g) of fertilizer per tree.
You should apply the fertilizer in small pockets of soil around the perimeter of the tree. Do not spread it into the planting hole or along the surface of the ground. Surface fertilization can result in weed growth.
Prune young mahogany trees. During the first two to eight years of the tree's life, yearly pruning can help control the height and spread of the tree.
· Check the arrangement and space between limbs. The healthiest mahogany trees will have several evenly spaced major limbs that spread out along one central trunk or central leader. As the tree grows, these limbs will be at least 2 feet (61 cm) apart from one another, if not further.
· Prune away any upright leaders aside from the central trunk. These upward growing branches can make it more difficult for the tree to tolerate strong winds
· Cut away any branches that grow larger than two-thirds of the diameter of the central trunk. Such limbs can put stress on the tree and shorten its lifespan.
Watch out for pests. There are a few common pests that may present a problem to the health and longevity of your tree. When you spot such pests, apply an appropriate pesticide to the area.
· Some of the biggest problems come from shoot borers, longicorn beetles, powder post beetles, tent caterpillars, tip moths, scale, leaf notchers, leaf miners, Cuban leaf beetles, mahogany webworms, and Sri Lanka weevils.
· Among these insect pests, borers present the greatest threat to the health and longevity of the tree. When borers are present, pesticides should be applied.
· The other pests mostly cause aesthetic damage to the tree and don't often cause structural damage. As a result, pesticide application is not as crucial when these pests are spotted. You can treat the tree or choose not to do so.
· When selecting a pesticide, look for one specifically labeled to work against the type of pest you are trying to kill. Do not assume that all pesticides will work on all pests.
· Monitor the tree for signs of infection. While diseases rarely strike mahogany trees, nectria infection can develop when the tree becomes stressed or injured.
· Look for discolored bark along the branches of the tree, particularly where the branch meets the trunk. As the fungal disease progresses, the discoloration can turn into small cream-colored to reddish cankers that develop on the surface of the bark. These bumps will continue to grow and can eventually kill entire branches or trees.
· The best way to save a mahogany tree facing nectria infection is to remove the infected wood. You may also apply a fungicide to the tree, but fungicides do not always work on this particular type of infection.